Temporary; see temporary variable.
A temporary variable is automatically created by the compiler for use during a particular operation, such as a function call with an argument that has to be converted to a different type.
The keyword this represents a hidden argument automatically supplied by the compiler in every member function call. Its value during the execution of any member function is the address of the class object for which the member function call was made.
A token is a part of a program that the compiler treats as a separate unit. It's analogous to a word in English; a statement is more like a sentence. For example, string is a token, as are :: and (. On the other hand, x = 5; is a statement.
The keyword true is a predefined value representing the result of a conditional expression whose condition is satisfied. For example, in the conditional expression x < y, if x is less than y, the result of the expression will be true.
The type of a class variable is the class to which it belongs. The type of a native variable is one of the predefined variable types in C++; see integer variable, floating-point variable, and bool for details on the native types.
The type system refers to the set of rules that the compiler uses to decide what uses are legal for a variable of a given type. In C++, these determinations are made by the compiler (static type checking). This makes it easier to prevent type errors than it is in languages where type checking is done during execution of the program (dynamic type checking).