A library (or library module) contains the object code generated from several source code modules, in a form that the linker can search when it needs to find general-purpose functions.
The linker is a program that combines information from all of the object files for our program, along with some previously prepared files called libraries, to produce an executable program.
Linking is the process of creating an executable program from object files and libraries.
A literal value doesn't have a name, but represents itself in a literal manner. Some examples are 'x' (a char literal having the ASCII value that represents the letter x), and 5 (a numeric literal with the value 5).
Local scope describes the visibility of variables that are defined within a function; such variables can be accessed only by code in that function. Actually, to be very precise, a variable can be declared in any block, not just in a function; in that case, its scope is from the point where it is declared until the end of the block where it is defined.
A logical expression is an expression that takes on the value true or false, rather than a numeric value. Some examples of such expressions are: x > y, which will be true if x has a greater value than y and false otherwise; and a == b, which will be true if a has the same value as b, and false otherwise; see bool.
A long is a type of integer variable that can represent a whole number in either the range -2147483648 to 2147483647 (if signed) or the range 0 to 4294967295 (if unsigned).
A loop is a means of executing a controlled block a variable number of times, depending on some condition. The statement that controls the controlled block is called a loop control statement. This book covers the while and for loop control statements; see those headings for details.
A loop control statement is a statement that controls the controlled block in a loop.